About us

The Factum Foundation for Digital Technology in Conservation is a not-for-profit organisation, founded in 2009 in Madrid. It works alongside its sister company, Factum Arte: a multi-disciplinary workshop in Madrid dedicated to digital mediation in contemporary art and the production of facsimiles.

The Foundation was established to demonstrate the importance of documenting, monitoring, studying, recreating and disseminating the world’s cultural heritage through the rigorous development of high-resolution recording and re-materialisation techniques.

Factum Foundation aims to:

1. Develop recording systems for use with two-dimensional, multi-spectral and three-dimensional applications. Through the development of hardware and software the foundation promotes an understanding of the mediations and transformations involved in the recording, processing and output of digital data.

2. Ensure the availability of low-cost, high-resolution, recording systems designed for use with cultural heritage. An important part of this is to change attitudes – promoting an understanding of the dynamic nature of originality.

3. Encourage and support the use of digital imaging in the creation of permanent public records of important objects and artworks.

4. Carry out meaningful comparative studies of different commercially available systems and make these results public.

5. Clarify the role of physical facsimiles in conservation. This involves new work to define good practice in a rapidly growing and complex area.

6. Create practical, secure archiving and display systems for high-resolution data.

7. Ensure access to digital records of important artworks to the widest public through the Creative Commons model.

8. Establish training and apprenticeship programmes to pass on skills and experience of both hardware and software.

9. Plan and promote exhibitions that establish originality as a process and not a state of being and that bring re-created and original objects to the widest audience in the most dynamic way.

10. Encourage and develop new approaches and uses for digital information in the display and communication of works of art.

Iconoclastic destruction, mass tourism, war, natural disasters, imperfect restoration and commercial exploitation all pose serious threat to the preservation of many great works of art and culture. The conservation and preservation communities have realized the importance of high-resolution digital recording and this data is starting to be integrated into professional protocols and the discourse surrounding preservation. Central to this shift of attitude is a fundamental reappraisal of the cardinal role facsimiles can acquire when installed in their original location, or even when displaced and presented afresh in touring exhibitions. Facsimiles evidence the quality of the data retrievable through high-resolution recording. They are useful tools both to monitor the changes the original objects undergo throughout its existence and to raise awareness amongst the growing number of visitors that the preservation of the past is a delicate and difficult act. It is necessary to investigate an object’s historical and physical composition in order to develop better ways to protect it.

The Foundation promotes access to the public while developing new methods of display that lead to a deeper and more intimate understanding of our relationship to the materiality of things and the dynamic nature of their ‘originality’. The Foundation is committed to a policy of open access for study and conservation purposes while helping the custodians of our heritage generate revenues to preserve and protect the works in their care.

This work is not limited to parts of the world where the application of technology may be taken for granted; the Foundation is focused on sites where the preservation of cultural heritage is most needed - whether in the tombs in the Valley of the Kings, in Europe’s churches and cathedrals or in some of the world's greatest museums and collections.

The primary objective of the Factum Foundation is to ensure that future generations can inherit the past in a condition in which it can be studied in depth and emotionally engaged with. We endeavor to create a living archive of a growing collection of all the wonders that we have inherited so that future generations - whose attitudes towards cultural heritage may, of course, be very different and who will certainly develop technologies well in advance of ours - will have a resource that we bequeath to them of raw, clean and un-manipulated data.

To succeed in these aims the Foundation needs to raise funds from committed supporters. Please visit the Giving page for more information.

What people are saying:

"Factum's facsimiles have helped create a discussion around the idea that originality is not a fixed state."

Ben Luke
The Art Newspaper - Spring 2020

"‘The Aura in the Age of Digital Materiality is essential reading for everyone in the art, museum, and cultural heritage field. It is an extraordinary collection comprising some fifty essays by art historians and professionals in museums, architecture, the sciences, ethics, indigenous rights and other fields. Altogether, it is remarkable work of advocacy for connecting individuals, communities and countries through art.

The book and its many influential authors go far beyond the convention-bound approaches of institutions such as UNESCO and ICOMOS to challenge how we think about monuments and objects of art – how we stockpile or share them, and how digitization and documentation can facilitate a new dialog about art across cultures.

Kate Fitz Gibbon
Cultural Property News - Spring 2020

"Lowe ha trasformato la sua ossessione, registrare la superficie delle cose, in un argomento fondamentale per la preservazione e la condivisione del patrimonio artistico minacciato dal tempo, dalla follia umana, dal cambiamento climatico."

Marta Galli
Vogue Italia - Spring 2020

"Indeed, the healing of historical wounds has become an essential aspect of Factum Arte’s endeavours, as, fittingly for a postquantum era, it enables iconic objects to exist in two places simultaneously."

Emma Crichton-Miller
Country Life Magazine - Summer 2019

Factum preserves evidence, neither reconstructing nor reformulating narratives.

Katrina Kufer
Harpers Bazaar Arabia - Autumn 2018

The vast size of many of the artworks in Factum, combined with the high-tech carving and 3D printing machinery, gives room after room the air of a Willy Wonka factory, but one where art, not candy, is the treat of choice. Lowe, who presides over all of it, is here to make sure that the artists who enter have the tools, technology, and support staff to make whatever they dream up.

James Tarmy
Bloomberg - March 2018

Reproduction today by companies of this sort of quality, we see, is more than just a technical achievement - it is the window to lost works, to mysterious worlds of great beauty, and is a vital educational tool helping bring the stories of myriad cultures to a much wider audience."

Lucia van der Post
Spears - May/June 2018

Bringing together these strands – technical, human, aesthetic – combined with fanatical attention to detail has secured the company’s reputation.

Matthew Sturgis
Patek Philippe - October 2017

"That immaculate eye for detail is typical of the work of Factum Arte, a Madrid-based studio whose combination of digital analysis with assiduous craft is transforming the way we see art. I have been watching their work develop for nearly a decade. I am now convinced it is the most important thing happening in 21st-century art – because it can quite literally save civilisation."

Jonathan Jones
The Guardian - February 2017

The point is not just to save those tombs. It is also to challenge our assumptions about what we think is original, or authentic, in a work of art.

Anthony Sattin
Christie’s Magazine - November 2015

"The projects of the Factum Foundation involve some of the most urgent and exciting developments in contemporary cultural heritage. Digital artisans and their collaborative skills are so impressive that it’s easy to imagine that objects’ conservation and reproduction simply leave things just as they are, unchanged and immortal. But the enterprise of documentation through advanced digital recording has the power entirely to transform the worlds of material culture and alter the forms of memory and artistry they sustain. The challenges of these new kinds of digital objects and cultural memories must be collectively understood and productively directed. Wounded artifacts may sometimes need heroic surgery, but they always need nursing, forms of artful care that sustain objects’ lives and maintain their vivacity. This is why the Factum Foundation needs every support in its plans to encourage state of the art digital curatorship, and to use this curatorship to help transform the arts of the cultural state."

Simon Schaffer,
Professor of History and the Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge & author/presenter of Mechanical Marvels: Clockwork Dreams, a BBC documentary - 2013

"The exhibition Mindful Hands that opened last night at the Cini Foundation sets a new high standard for exhibitions on medieval miniatures... The design by the architect (Studio Michele de Lucci) of the display is breathtaking, the miniatures themselves spectacular (some of the best in the world) and in great condition and beautifully lit to be appreciated. This collection is one of the largest and most important worldwide and it has never been exhibited or fully catalogued and only a tiny part ever studied. There is a video by Adam Lowe of Factum Arte that is a work of genius (on making medieval manuscripts), also breathtaking. It is, quite literally, the very best show of its kind I have ever seen, and I've seen them all for the last nearly 50 years."

Sandra Hindman
Professor Emeritus of Art History, Northwestern University, after the opening of the exhibition Mindful Hands. Masterpieces of Illumination, 2016

"Because it connects the most advanced technology with the deepest care for the materiality, history and intricacies of works of art, Factum Arte occupies now a central place at the crossroads of all the issues concerning the restoration, conservation and politics of treasures spread in many different countries. What the Factum Arte team has managed to assemble allows for a set of skills impossible to find anywhere else to not only probe deeply into works so as to reproduce them, but also, to produce new works of art. Or rather, it has given to the words ‘reproduce’ and ‘facsimile’ a completely new sense and direction that has become synonymous with creation and innovation."

Bruno Latour,
Sociologist of Science and anthropologist, Professor at Sciences Po, Paris & recipient of the Holberg Prize - 2013

Whether to rewrite history or reinterpret masterpieces, replicas made with a palette of high-tech tools are changing the way tourists see art.

Nicole Martinelli
Wall Street Journal - March 2010

"Ces magiciens du numérique sont aussi des érudits et des pédagogues des arts anciens. Ils opéraient jusqu’ici en ordre dispersé."

Marc Fumaroli
Académie Française and Académie des Inscriptions, Emeritus Professor of Rhetoric and Society in Europe, Collège de France, recipient of the Balzac Prize - 2001

"La muestra que se exhibe ahora en Madrid, en CaixaForum, “Las artes de Piranesi, arquitecto, grabador, anticuario, vedutista y diseñador”, es extraordinaria. Tiene, entre otros, el mérito de mostrar buen número de los objetos que Piranesi concibió y diseñó pero nunca llegó a ver materializados, pues eran demasiado excéntricos e insólitos para el gusto de sus contemporáneos. Los ha producido, con escrupulosa fidelidad y utilizando la tecnología más avanzada, el laboratorio madrileño Factum Arte que dirige Adam Lowe. Esos candelabros, trípodes, sillas, chimeneas, adornos, apliques, jarrones en los que Piranesi dio rienda suelta a su desbocada fantasía y su amor por las civilizaciones del pasado – Roma, Egipto, los etruscos – fascinan casi tanto como las invenciones carcelarias que lo han hecho famoso o las Vistas de esa Roma de los siglos grandiosos que él creyó documentar en sus grabados cuando en realidad la rehacía e inventaba."

Mario Vargas Llosa,
Nobel Prize winner in Literature - 2010

"At a time when control over big data is one of the most vital issues we face, Factum Arte is a leader in its field, providing cutting-edge technology and an ethical approach to conservation and artistic practice that offers international best practice for anyone working in the arts and humanities. Their remarkable fusion of art, science and digital technology has created unsurpassed methods of 3D scanning and printing that is transforming our understanding of originals and facsimiles. From the surface of an Old Master painting, to the recreation of Egyptian tombs and previously unrealised designs by Piranesi, Factum Arte leads the way in understanding how we can retain the integrity of the cultural heritage of the past, and preserve it for the future."

Jerry Brotton,
Professor of Renaissance Studies, Queen Mary’s, University of London. Author of A History of the World in Twelve Maps

"The gift of the facsimile is a metaphor for the relationship between Europe and Egypt - the skills and technology that have been developed in Europe to create the facsimile are going to be transferred to Egypt where the local workers will be trained and those very skills and technology will become Egyptian"

Baroness Ashton,
EU High Representative on the occasion of giving the facsimile of the Tomb of Tutankhamun to Egypt; Cairo - November 14th 2012


Adam Lowe Juan Carlos Arias Carmen G. Figueras Damián López Rojo Rafa Rachewsky Carlos Bayod Lucini
Blanca Nieto Dwight Perry Pedro de Miró Infante Michael Roberts Javier Barreno Otto Lowe
Michael Ward Gabriel Scarpa Angel Jorquera José Manuel Pellón José Menéndez Francesco Cigognetti
Carlos Alonso Luke Caulfield Manuel Franquelo Charlie Westgarth Jordi García Pons Anna Paola Ferrara
Enrique Esteban Paula Rodríguez Constanza Dessain Aliaa Ismail Guendalina Damone Voula Paraskevi Natsi
Natalia Pérez Buesa Isabel Fernández Silvia Álvarez Oak Taylor Smith Eva Rosenthal Mena Ferdy Saumarez Smith
Jacinto de Manuel Irene Gaumé Quinner Baird Miguel Hernando Jorge Cano María Carmen Pascual
Iván Allende David Carrillo Eduardo L. Rodríguez Eva Segovia Oscar Parasiego Aniuska Martín
Teresa Casado Esperanza González Salomé Prada Pottecher Emily Kraus Adriana Bustamante Victoria Matatagui
Marta Marcos Nicolas Béliard Pepe Gómez-Acebo Louise Carla Sala Luke Tchalenko Giulia Fornaciari
Elizabeth Mitchell Carlos Sanz Sayalero Amanda Blázquez Laura Revuelta Nathaniel Mann
In Memoriam: Piers Wardle

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